Human Metabolic Atlas

Genome-scale metabolic model for adipocytes, iAdipocytes1809

For using iAdipocytes1809, please refer to " Integration of clinical data with a genome-scale metabolic model of the human adipocyte, Molecular Systems Biology 9 Article number: 649 doi:10.1038/msb.2013.5"

We evaluated the presence/absence of proteins encoded by 14,077 genes in adipocytes obtained from different tissue samples using immunohistochemistry. By combining this with previously published adipocyte-specific proteome data, we identified proteins associated with 7,340 genes in human adipocytes. This information was used to reconstruct a comprehensive and functional genome-scale metabolic model of adipocyte metabolism. The resulting metabolic model, iAdipocytes1809, enables mechanistic insights into adipocyte metabolism on a genome-wide level, and can serve as a scaffold for integration of omics data to understand the genotype–phenotype relationship in obese subjects. By integrating human transcriptome and fluxome data, we found an increase in the metabolic activity around androsterone, ganglioside GM2 and degradation products of heparan sulfate and keratan sulfate, and a decrease in mitochondrial metabolic activities in obese subjects compared with lean subjects. Our study hereby shows a path to identify new therapeutic targets for treating obesity through combination of high throughput patient data and metabolic modeling.

Cell Type Model Download in compressed SBML format
Adipocyte iAdipocytes1809 iAdipocytes1809

White adipose tissue (WAT) has a major role in the progression of obesity. Here, we combined data from RNA-Seq and antibody-based immunohistochemistry to describe the normal physiology of human WAT obtained from three female subjects and explored WAT-specific genes by comparing WAT to 26 other major human tissues. Using the protein evidence in WAT, we validated the content of a genome-scale metabolic model for adipocytes. We employed this high-quality model for the analysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) gene expression data obtained from subjects included in the Swedish Obese Subjects Sib Pair study to reveal molecular differences between lean and obese individuals. We integrated SAT gene expression and plasma metabolomics data, investigated the contribution of the metabolic differences in the mitochondria of SAT to the occurrence of obesity, and eventually identified cytosolic branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) transaminase 1 as a potential target that can be used for drug development. We observed decreased glutaminolysis and alterations in the BCAAs metabolism in SAT of obese subjects compared to lean subjects. We also provided mechanistic explanations for the changes in the plasma level of BCAAs, glutamate, pyruvate, and α-ketoglutarate in obese subjects. Finally, we validated a subset of our model-based predictions in 20 SAT samples obtained from 10 lean and 10 obese male and female subjects.

" Defining the human adipose tissue proteome to reveal metabolic alterations in obesity. J Proteome Res, 13:5106-5119."

Genome-scale metabolic model for hepatocyte, iHepatocytes2322

For using iHepatocytes2322, please refer to " Genome-scale metabolic modelling of hepatocytes reveals serine deficiency in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease"

Several liver disorders result from perturbations in the metabolism of hepatocytes, and their underlying mechanisms can be outlined through the use of genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs). Here we reconstruct a consensus GEM for hepatocytes, which we call iHepatocytes2322, that extends previous models by including an extensive description of lipid metabolism. We build iHepatocytes2322 using Human Metabolic Reaction 2.0 database and proteomics data in Human Protein Atlas, which experimentally validates the incorporated reactions. The reconstruction process enables improved annotation of the proteomics data using the network centric view of iHepatocytes2322. We then use iHepatocytes2322 to analyse transcriptomics data obtained from patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We show that blood concentrations of chondroitin and heparan sulphates are suitable for diagnosing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and for the staging of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Furthermore, we observe serine deficiency in patients with NASH and identify PSPH, SHMT1 and BCAT1 as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.

Cell Type Model Download in compressed SBML format Download in COBRA-friendly format
Hepatocyte iHepatocytes2322 iHepatocytes2322 iHepatocytes2322(COBRA)

Genome-scale metabolic model for myocytes, iMyocyte2419

For using iMyocyte2419, please refer to "Proteome- and transcriptome-driven reconstruction of the human myocyte metabolic network and its use for identification of markers for diabetes, (2015) Cell Reports 11:6."

Skeletal myocytes are metabolically active and susceptible to insulin resistance, thus implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2D). This complex disease involves systemic metabolic changes and their elucidation at the systems level requires genome-wide data and biological networks. Genome-scale metabolic models (GEMs) provide a network-context to integrate high-throughput data. We generated myocyte-specific RNA-seq data and investigated their correlation with proteome data. These data were then used to reconstruct a comprehensive myocyte GEM. Next, we performed a meta-analysis of six studies comparing muscle transcription in T2D versus healthy subjects. Transcriptional changes were mapped on the myocyte GEM, revealing extensive transcriptional regulation in T2D, particularly around pyruvate oxidation, branched-chain amino acid catabolism, and tetrahydrofolate metabolism, connected through the down-regulated dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Strikingly, the gene signature underlying this metabolic regulation successfully classifies the disease state of individual samples, suggesting that regulation of these pathways is a ubiquitous feature of myocytes in response to T2D.

Cell Type Model Download in compressed SBML format
Myocyte iMyocyte2419 iMyocyte2419

The codes, scripts and files used in this study are available for download here.